這個詞，明確的說應該是源自 歐洲管理學院（INSEAD）兩位教授金偉燦和莫伯尼的新書《藍海策略》（Blue Ocean Strategy）。W. Chan Kim與Renee Mauborgne強調，割喉競爭的唯一下場，就是血染成河（紅海），不分敵我都得承受獲利縮減的後果。本書依據百年來30家企業的150項策略變遷研究，作者認為，真正持久的勝利不在競爭求勝，而是創造「藍海」（blue oceans）——嶄新未開發的市場空間，逐步發展成熟 (developing uncontested market space that makes thae competition irrelevant)。作者稱這種策略為「價值創新」（value innovation）——創造重大價值，讓對手相形見絀，無法趕上。
Kim and Mauborgne’s blue ocean metaphor elegantly summarizes their vision of the kind of expanding, competitor-free markets that innovative companies can navigate. Unlike "red oceans," which are well explored and crowded with competitors, "blue oceans" represent "untapped market space" and the "opportunity for highly profitable growth." The only reason more big companies don’t set sail for them, they suggest, is that "the dominant focus of strategy work over the past twenty-five years has been on competition-based red ocean strategies"-i.e., finding new ways to cut costs and grow revenue by taking away market share from the competition. With this groundbreaking book, Kim and Mauborgne-both professors at France’s INSEAD, the second largest business school in the world-aim to repair that bias. Using dozens of examples-from Southwest Airlines and the Cirque du Soleil to Curves and Starbucks-they present the tools and frameworks they’ve developed specifically for the task of analyzing blue oceans. They urge companies to "value innovation" that focuses on "utility, price, and cost positions," to "create and capture new demand" and to "focus on the big picture, not the numbers." And while their heavyweight analytical tools may be of real use only to serious strategy planners, their overall vision will inspire entrepreneurs of all stripes, and most of their ideas are presented in a direct, jargon-free manner. Theirs is not the typical business management book’s vague call to action; it is a precise, actionable plan for changing the way companies do business with one resounding piece of advice: swim for open waters.
What is the Red Ocean Strategy
Compete in existing market space.
Beat the comptition.
Exploit existing demand.
Make the value/cost trade-off
Align the whole system of a company’s activities with its strategic choice of differentiation or low cost.
What is the Blue Ocean Strategy
Create uncontested market space.
Make the competition irrelevant.
Create and capture new demand.
Break the value/cost trade-off
Align the whole system of a company’s activities in pursuit of differentiation and low cost.
Website: Blue Ocean Strategy